Industry Glossary - Knowledgebase / Resource Center / Industry Info / Reference - ASI

Industry Glossary

Authors list

Jump to a letter:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

(Click on a term to view the definition)


To roughen a mesh surface, yielding what is termed "tooth."


Property which causes paper to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.


Direct premium offered by a bank or savings institution to a depositor opening a new account.


Silklike in appearance and feel. Resistant to stretch and shrinkage. Fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate.


Written notice to a distributor from a supplier that an order has been received.


Soft and woolly. Appearance varies from smooth and thin to a thick woven texture. Springs back when crushed.


A set of technologies created by Microsoft to enable interactive content on Web sites. With ActiveX, websites can be animated using multimedia effects, interactive objects, and sophisticated applications that create a user experience comparable to that of a highquality CD-ROM. The same effects can be experienced with Java, Shockwave and Flash — the difference is that ActiveX is an exclusive Microsoft product making use of ActiveX Controls. ActiveX programs or “controls” are among the many types of components that use COM (Component Object Model) technologies to provide interoperability with other types of COM components and services. ActiveX controls are the third version of OLE controls (OCX), providing a number of enhancements specifically designed to facilitate distribution of components over high-latency networks and to provide integration of controls into Web browsers. These enhancements include features such as incremental rendering and code signing, to allow users to identify the authors of controls before allowing them to execute. Put more simply, an ActiveX Control is an applet based on Microsoft technologies that enables interactive content on web pages.

Ad Copy

Lettering imprinted on any item. Usually an advertiser's name, sales message, trademark or slogan.

Advance premium

Merchandise given to a new customer on the condition that he or she earns it via a later purchase.


Purchaser of specialties. Also know as an end-user or buyer.

Advertising specialty

Useful or interesting article or merchandise, usually carrying an imprinted advertising or promotional message, given with no obligation. Also known as a giveaway, adcentive or promotional product.


Imitation lace made on a Schiffli loom. The end result of the aetzing process.

AI (or) .ai

Adobe illustrator


Graphic technique in which ink is applied with compressed air, similar to spray painting, to render a soft, airy effect.


Continuous embroidery which covers all of the fabric from selvage to selvage.

Analog color proof

Off-press color proof made from separation films.

Anniversary plan

Goodwill-building promotion in which employees or customers receive a specialty or business gift on their hiring anniversaries.


Prevents the accumulation of static electricity and helps keep the fabric from clinging to the wearer or to other garments.


a.k.a. "app" "program" "software" Used interchangeably with program and software, this is a general term for a program that performs specific tasks, such as word processing, database management, e-mail sending or retrieval, or web browsing. Unlike system software, which maintains and organizes the computer system (such as the operating system), an app is an end-user program.


  1. An embroidered motif, aetzed or cut, which can be used as a separate embroidered figure (Schiffli embroidery).
  2. Fabric, which may or may not be previously embroidered, sewn to another piece of fabric or to a garment.


Multicolored diamond pattern used in knitwear, especially socks and sweaters.


All illustration copy used in preparing a job for printing.

Art proof

Artwork submitted for client approval, usually a blackand-white stat of the camera-ready art.


Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The general specification of bits in a computer to input, store, process, and output text characters.

Attachment/Attached file

a.k.a. "enclosure" A file (or group of files) that is included (or “attached”) with an e-mail message. You can attach files through almost any popular e-mail program, such as Eudora or Outlook Express. Usually, this is accomplished by simply clicking the “attach file” button and then browsing through your computer system to find and select the desired file or image. Be careful with attachments, however, as they stay on your computer unless you go into your attachments folder and delete them. The best thing to do if you want to save an attachment is to open it, do a “save as,” and put it in a folder on your computer. That way, you can routinely go into your attachments folder and delete them all without worrying about losing one you want. Never open any attachment you receive from someone you do not know; it may contain a virus.

Author's alterations (AAs)

Changes in type at the proof stages, made by and chargeable to the client.


Recognition merchandise, often personalized, used to acknolwedge performance or milestones.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Baby herringbone

Herringbone knit using fine yarns resulting in a lighter and smoother fabrication.

Baby pique

Pique knit using fine yarns - same as baby herringbone.


Woven or nonwoven material used underneath the item or fabric being embroidered to provide support and stability.


An insignia of identification.

Basket weave

Variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and weft threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look. Fabrics have a loose construction and a flat appearance.

Beaded placket

Design detail at the opening of the placket that is formed by rolling the underside of the top placket to the face creating a piped or ridge detail at the edge. Sometimes the beading is in a contrast color.

Bean Stitch

Three stitches applied back and forth between two points, in the same space as one regular stitch. This stitch is used to provide secure registration in place of a repeated, single stitch outline that may not align properly.


Lustrous durable fabric with heavy crosswise ribs, used to make coats and suits.


Any downloadable file that contains more than simply human-readable, ASCII text. Typically it refers to a runnable program available text. Typically, it refers to a program available for download, but it can also refer to pictures, sounds, or movies, among other things. Most newsgroups have subgroups specifically for binaries; a posting in comp.sys.mac.comm might announce that a program is available for download, but the binary (the file itself) would be found in comp.sys.mac.comm.binaries. Newsgroups, such as, contain files for download (in this case, pictures). You will need a newsreader to download and decode binary files.

Binary numbers

A numbering system with a base (radix) of 2, it is unlike the numbering systems most of us use, which have bases of 10 (decimal numbers), 12 (measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time). Binary numbers are preferred for computers, for precision and economy. Building an electronic circuit that can detect the difference between two states (high current and low current, or 0 and 1) is easier and less expensive than building circuits that detect the difference among 10 states (0 through 9). The word bit is derived from the phrase Binary digit.


Basic Input/Output System (pronounced: buyohss) A technical computing term used to describe what is coded into a PC’s ROM to provide the basic instructions for controlling the system hardware. The operating system (OS) and application programs both directly access BIOS routines to provide better compatibility for such functions as screen display. Some makers of add-in boards, such as graphics accelerator cards, provide their own BIOS modules that work in conjunction with (or replace) the BIOS on the system’s motherboard.


Caps are dyed normally and then very gently washed with stones in a chemical solvent to create a very subtle worn look.

Bird's eye

Small diamond pattern accentuated by a dot in the middle, resembling the eye of a bird. Commonly used in suitings.

Birthday plan

Sale whereby employees or customers receive a specialty or business gift on their birthdays.


Basic unit of digital information.

Blanket cloth

Thick heavily fulled woolen fabric with a softly brushed finish similar to an actual blanket, used for outerwear.

Blatt Stitch

A term used in Schiffli embroidery, referring to zig zag stitches laid close together. In Multihead embroidery, the term is Satin Stitch.

Blazer cloth

General term for a variety of flannels and meltons used to make blazers.


Two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics. The most common blend is cotton and polyester.

Blind embossing

Design stamped without metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect.

Blind stamping

Hot-stamping without fail. The approach, used often with leather, gives a more subtle imprint than hotstamping and a shallower imprint than debossing.


Bitmap Any picture you see on a Web page is a bitmap. Bitmaps come in many file formats, such as GIF, JPG, TIF, BMP, PCT, PCX, and DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). They can be read and edited by paint programs and image editors such as Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro. As its name suggests, a bitmap is a map of dots or pixels. If you zoom in or try to scale up a bitmap, it will look blocky.


A pre-wound reel or spool of thread, usually plain white. The contents of the bobbin, the bobbin thread, are stitched to the back of the fabric.

Boiled wool

Thick dense fabric that is heavily fulled to completely obscure its knitted construction. It has the suppleness of a knit, with the ability and shape retention of a woven fabric


The joining together of two fabrics permanently with a bonding agent. Also known as heat sealing.


A sharp pointed instrument used to puncture goods, part of the Schiffli embroidery machine.


Open-work incorporated into embroidered designs; a sharp-pointed instrument punctures or bores the fabric, and stitches are made around the opening to enclose the raw edges.

Borrowed interest

Technique in which a marketer associates a promotion or product with a better-known property for the purpose of attracting attention or implied endorsement.


  • French for buckled, curled or ringed. It describes a knitted or woven fabric characterized by loops, knots, or curls on one or both sides, made with a variety of looped, curled, or slubbed yarns in one or both directions.
  • A yarn with loops producing a rough, nubby appearance on woven or knitted fabric.


When an e-mail message cannot get to its recipient for some reason, it is returned or bounced to the sender, with an error message informing the user that it was not sent. This is also known as “bouncing back.” You may hear someone say, “I tried to send you an e-mail message but it got bounced back.” If this happens to you, check the e-mail address and contact tech support at your ISP.


Bonus direct-mail offer sent along with a premium won or earned by the consumer.

Break for color

To separate, by color, elements to be printed in different colors.

Brights (Color Families)

Grouping made up of vibrant, primary colors such as blue, green, red, and yellow.


Close plain weave fabric made of cotton, rayon, or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester. The term broadcloth is also used in reference to a plain or twill weave wool or wool-blend fabric that is highly napped (brushed) and then pressed flat.

Broken link/Broken grpahic

A link that no longer works or a graphic that does not appear when a Web page loads are said to be "broken." In other words, when a link or image is "clicked on" and it does not take you to the correct destination, but instead an error message appears, the link is broken. When an image doesn’t load, and instead you see the alt text or some generic icon shapes, it’s a broken graphic. Broken links and broken graphics occur for several reasons: the server hosting the Web site has shut down temporarily or has been restarted; the Web site has moved to an entirely new server; the file or files have been moved or deleted; or the HTML code is incorrect.


Used to view and navigate Web pages and other information on the World Wide Web. Examples include: Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Safari (MAC), etc.

Browser Compatibility

A term used to compare the way a Web page looks on one WWW browser as opposed to another. For example, if you view on Netscape, it will look pretty much the same as it does on Internet Explorer (illustrating browser compatibility). Some time ago, though, if you viewed on the AOL browser, it would’ve looked jumbled (a case of browser incompatibility). The reason these incompatibilities exist relates to the way a browser interprets the code that creates a Web page (HTML). Browser compatibility can also refer to cross-platform compatibility, which is, for example, the way a page renders or displays on a Windows system as opposed to on a Mac. The differences are usually very slight, however, just enough to annoy some Web designers and their clients into spending great time and energy on beta-testing a Web site with every browser on every type of system. Browser compatibility is often mentioned in conjunction with the term browser support, but the two should not be confused.


Finishing process for knit or woven fabrics where brushes or other devices are used to raise a nap in fabrics to create a novelty surface texture. Used mainly in fall or winter seasons because of its warm feel.


Liner which adds support to the front of a cap.


Manufacturer's identification mark printed on a form or product, usually in an inconspicuous area.


A hand made emblem, made with brass or silver hollow thread. These finished emblems are a product of India or Pakistan.

Business gift

Merchandise given by a business for goodwill, without obligation to its customers and employees. Also known as an executive gift.


Opportunity for travel incentive participants to purchase part of a trip if they do not fully qualify by sales performance.


Unit of digital information, equivalent to one character or 8 or 32 bits.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Makeup or Manufacturing.

Calvary twill

Strong rugged fabric with a pronounced twill line on the back. Made with a steep 63-degree twill weave, worsted yarns and a very tight weave. Used for sportswear, uniforms, coats, and suits.

Camera-ready art

Any drawing, photos, illustration or lettering suitable for photographic reproduction.


Heavy, firm, strong plain weave or basket weave fabric often made of cotton. It is produced in many grades and qualities and may have a soft or firm hand.


Prior to the modern method of digitizing on-screen, an enlarged picture or cartoon of a design was drawn, using the industry-standard six to one ratio (the cartoon being six times larger than the resulting design).

CAS (Certified Advertising Specialist)

Designated industry title signifying that the holder has attained seven certified education units by attending 70 hours of educational offerings.


Method in which molten metal is forced into a mold of rubber or plaster, then cooled into the desired shape

Catalog price

Price of a product shown in a supplier's catalog. There can be no requirement, implied or expressed, by the supplier that the price be adhered to by any person selling that product. Also known as Suggest List Price


Compact Disc - Read Only Memory An optical storage technology that stores and plays back data. “Read only” means the information on the disc may be capable of being displayed or used but not deleted. CD-ROMs are commonly used for encyclopedias, dictionaries, and software libraries, and they are also used for multimedia applications. One CD-ROM can hold around 650 megabytes, or the equivalent of 700 floppy disks. CD-ROMs have become a favorite medium for installing programs, since they cost only slightly more to manufacture than floppy disks and most major software applications would require at least five floppies. Most computers now have a CDROM drive. Don’t sound hopelessly out of touch with technology—be sure to use the term “CD-ROM” to refer to the technology or the discs, but not to the hardware you play the discs on; that’s a “CD-ROM drive.”

CDR or .cdr



Computer Graphics Metafile

Chain Stitch

Named for its resemblance to a chain link, this stitch is usually applied using a single head embroidery machine.

Chalk stripes

White or light-colored stripes woven against a dark background, like a chalk mark on a blackboard. They are usually more widely spaced than pin stripes.


High-quality, lightweight, especially soft fabric made with tightly spun worsted yarns and a plain weave, although sometimes a twill weave is used. Originally printed with small floral designs, now also made in plain colors and dark all-over prints. Used for scarves, blouses, and dresses.


Plain weave fabric usually of cotton, rayon, or a blend of these. Chambray usually has yarn dyed yarns in the warp direction, and white yarns in the filling direction. It is often made in striped patterns. It is also frequently made with indigo or pigment dye to face with multiple washings.


A form of embroidery, widely used in the college apparel markets, in which a large loop stitch is left on the top of the fabric. This embroidery utilizes the chain stitch described above. Uses heavy yarns of wool, cotton, or acrylic. Also known as loop piling.


Broad term for rough surfaced, heavily fulled woolen or worsted fabrics used to make suits and overcoats.


Twill weave fabric with a slight sheen, often made in a bottom weight fabric of cotton or cotton/polyester. Frequently, it is made of combed, two-ply yarns in both warp and filling and vat-dyed in khaki.

Clean-up charge

Factory charge added for the labor costs involved in cleaning the printing press after using a nonstandard ink. Also known as a wash-up charge.


Individuals who buy promotional products from distributors.


Hot-stamp procedure where the desired logo/copy is foil hot-stamped on a solid brass or metal base, then covered with epoxy dome.


Product in which a colored paste, made from ground glass, is applied to recessed areas, then fired at 1400 degrees and polished by stone and pumice to achieve brilliant color. Since gullies and ridges separate each individual color, fine lines between them are difficult to achieve.


Cyan, magenta, yellow, black subtractive colors for process color reproduction.

Collateral materials

Advertising materials that are not transmitted to consumers via traditional ad media, such as catalogs, shelf cards, posters, specification sheets and trade information materials.


Premiums designed to have inherent value based upon their perceived collectibility.

Color correction

Any method, such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching and scanning, used to improve color rendition.

Color families

Traditional tones are classic and timeless shades often deep and saturated. These colors include navy blue, forest green, burgundy, olive, along with khaki and cream.

Color proof

First or early printing of a finished color ad, combining impressions from each of the separate progressive color plates.

Color separation

Separation of multicolored original art by camera or laser-scan techniques to produce individual separated colors. There are four common separations: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.


Prevents the dyed color of a garment from fading due to sunlight, body moisture, laundry bleaches, or stained removal.

Column stitching

Tightly placed zig zag stitching. Straight or curved, it is commonly used in lettering and in borders. Also known as Satin Stitching or Steil stitching.


Although it’s in all capital letters, COM is not an acronym. It’s a contraction of communications, and it’s used to describe the serial port on a PC. COM is generally used in conjunction with a number, as in COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4 (for example, a printer port).

Combination sale

Tie-in of a premium with a purchase at a combination price; sometimes self-liquidating; on an on-pack.


Mechanical process in which knit fabrics are compressed in the lengthwise direction to tighten the construction and control shrinkage.

Complex Fill

A digitizing term used to describe a pre-defined section of a design that includes areas of knock out where the fabric shows through.

Comprehensive layout

Final stage of a layout, finished to very closely resemble how the printed piece will look.


The process of making computer data smaller so less is needed to represent the same information and, consequently, the information takes up less disk or file space and may be transmitted in less time.

Computerized composition

All-inclusive term for the use of computers to automatically perform the functions of the hyphenation, justification, and page formatting.

Condensed Format

Type of embroidery machine output format. The recording of only the points digitized which are later expanded to include all the stitches the machine will stitch in the format required.

Consumer promotion

Program which uses premiums or other incentives to get buyers to sample, purchase or remain loyal to a product or service.

Container premium

Product packed inside a special reusable container that is different from the product's standard packaging.


Textual information, images, art, diagrams, videos that appear on the website.

Content management

Process by which information is modified on a website.


Competition based on skill, in which prizes are offered. Proof-of-purchase is usually required with entry.

Continuity program

Promotion in which a set of related specialties or premiums are offered over a period of time.

Continuity promotion

Supermarket or other retail plan. (See Piece-a-Week and/or Tape Plan) Term may also apply to Coupon Plan.

Continuous tone art

Photography, painting or other piece of art in which black-and-white tones gradually merge into one another.


Using an embroidery thread color different from the color of the garment. For example, yellow and white thread used to embroider a navy blue shirt.

Controlled-markdown plan

Retail stamp or tape-redemption program that apples all markdowns to a limited group of grocery items and restricts them to loyal customers.

Cooperative (co-op) program

Arrangement whereby the marketing elements (usually dealers) of a company order specialties from a specific distributor who has been awarded the exclusive right to imprint the corporate logo, in return for advantages to the company and dealers.


Thread colors are chosen that coordinate with the garment. For example, a navy blue shirt with a dark green collar and cuffs would have a dark green embroidery.


Written content of advertising or editorial matter in the media.

Copy testing

Tests to determine consumer response to advertising copy and more broadly, to the total content - written and visual - of advertisements.

Cost per inquiry

Cost to generate an inquiry in direct-response advertising. Calculated by the total cost of the directresponse advertising divided by the number of inquires it generates.

Cost per thousand (CPM)

Traditionally called CPM, because the "M" represents the Roman numeral for thousand. The figure is calculated by dividing circulation or audience by a thousand and dividing the result into the cost of the advertising unit.


Coarse, uneven yarns are made from lower grade short staple cotton fibers into less expensive fabrics.


Smooth, even yarns are made of long staple cotton fibers into fine weave or fine gauge knit fabrics.

Cotton-ring spun

Spinning process that further refines a yarn to achieve the desired yarn size. This results in a smoother and more uniform yarn and produces fabrics that take dyes evenly and have superior hand feel.


Fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.

Coupon plan

Program in which premiums can be earned by accumulating proof-of-purchase coupons, labels or other tokens.

Cover stitch

Multineedle decorative topstitch traditionally used on underwear, T-shirts, henleys, and long johns, but more recently used as a fashion/design detail on a variety of knits.

Cover stitching

Using two needles to overlap threads underneath, covering the over-edged seams with a smoothseamed layer of threads.


The geographic area reached with specified intensity by an advertising medium. Also that reaction of an audience that is reached one or more times by a particular advertising schedule.


Rugged, water-repellent fabric made with a compact twill weave and tightly twisted worsted yarns. Usually, two shades of a color are twisted together, creating a two-ply yarn with a flecked or specked appearance. Used for top coats, suits, and sportswear.

Credit-card offer

Direct mailing to a credit card holder, offering merchandise. It often uses premiums or sweepstakes to close a sale or trial-offer acceptance.


Textured surface fabric found in both wovens and knits. It can be used in knits as the reverse side of a special jacquard. A crinkly surface is achieved via use of high twist yarns, chemical treatments, weave, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment. Crepes are available in an unlimited variety of fibers and blends and in may different constructions

Cromalin proof

Chemically created facsimile of a full-color reproduction.


To eliminate a portion of a picture, illustration or photography that contains unnecessary material, or to highlight a certain area of the image.

Crop marks

Indicators on artwork to show where an illustration is to be cut or sized.

Cross grain

Grain or fibers stitched diagonally or irregularly.

Cross platform independence

Feature on the Web enabling people from different computer systems to easily access information on the Web.


Person who receives the advertising specialty from the buyer, often a client or prospective client of the buyer. Also known as the recipient.


Broad term encompassing all plates associated with letterpress and hot-stamp printing.

Cut charge

Factory charge for producing a cut.


Virtual shop on the Web enabling transactions.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


In general, data is information, factual information such as text, numbers, sounds, images, anything that can be processed on a computer. Data also represents concepts, and sensations that are suitable for communicating, interpreting, or processing. As futurist Marshall Mcluhan said, "The electric light is pure information," meaning everything perceptible is data. The word data is plural; the singular form is datum, however data is commonly used to refer to both singular and plural.

Dealer incentive

Premium, merchandise or travel offered to a retailer with the specified purchase of a product. Also called a dealer loader or dealer premium.

Deboss and color-fill

Combing hot-stamping with debossing, so foil fills an image that is pushed down into the product.


Depression of an image into a material such as paper, leather or suede, so the image sits below the product surface.

Decal transfer

Imprinting method in which the decal is printed on an offset or letterset press, submerged in water and placed on the product. Excess water and air squeegeed off and the product is kiln-fired, a process that fuses the decal with the glaze.


Descriptive audience statistics that reflect consumer qualities like age, sex, race, income, residence, and education level.


Twill weave, yarn dyed fabric, usually made of cotton/polyester blend. The warp yarns are colored and the filling yarns are white.

Denim weights

Weight is determined by weighing one yard of fabric. Some popular denim weights are: 5 oz., 7 oz., 9.5 oz., 10 oz., 11.5 oz., 12 oz., and 14.5 oz.


Amount of stitches in a given area.


Another name for any fabric with a visible twill line.


Mold into which molten metal, plastic or other material is forced to make a specific shape. Also, a tool of very hard material used to press a particular shape into or onto a softer material.

Die charge

Charge by the supplier for creating a die from artwork supplied by the supplier.


Process where molten metal is injected into the cavity of a carved die.


Using sharp steel blades to cut shapes from printed sheets.


Steel plate engraved with the desired image, generally used to apply a gold or silver imprint.


Method of producing emblems and other flat specialties. A blank, cut from a metal sheet, is struck with a hammer that holds the die.

Digital artwork

Artwork created using computer-assisted design software.

Digital color proof

Off-press color proof produced from digital data without the need for separation films.


  1. To transform graphical input data into digital form for computer processing; to transform graphical input data into digital form for computer processing.
  2. To assign a discrete numeric value to an analog variable by analog-to-digital conversion; to assign a discrete numeric value to an analog variable by analog-to-digital conversion.

Digitized typesetting

Creation of typographic characters and symbols by the arrangement of black-and-white spots called pixels or pels.


Computer peripheral device that converts an analog signal (images or sound) into a digital sound.


Resin is applied to finished garment. The garment is then creased and dipped in a vat of chemicals to set in the resin.

Direct house

Company that manufactures advertising specialties and sells them through its own sales force. Also know as direct selling house.

Direct response

Advertising that attempts to generate orders directly to the manufacturer or service rather than through stores, dealers, or agents.

Direct seller

Item that serves as a door-opener, sales-closer, or party incentive.


Ad medium that employs the postal system to deliver advertisements to prospects.

Display premium

Form of dealer incentive which is part of a point-ofpurchase display. May be a sample of a consumer premium or a functional element of the display.


Person or company that represents many advertising specialty suppliers and sells ad specialties and premiums to various buyer companies, often developing promotional programs and employing them. Also know as counselor or jobber.

Distributor's net

Price a distributor pays for promotional products.

DOC or .doc

Word document file. Also can be DOCX or .docx.

Donegal tweed

Woolen tweed fabric that originated in Donegal, Ireland, characterized by thick, random, multicolored slubs.


Specialty offered by a salesperson to persuade potential buyers to listen to a sales presentation, or to initiate interest in a product or service for a follow-up sales call.

Double knit

Fabric knitted on a machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (two sets of needles). Contrasts with single needle construction. Double knit fabrics are heavier than single knit fabrics.

Double-faced fabric

Thick, heavy, reversible fabric made by weaving two separate cloths together with an extra binder in the warp or filling. Also called double cloth.


To transfer a file(s) from another computer to your computer. There are a few methods of doing this on the Internet. HTTP, FTP and as E-mail attachments are the most common. When you "load" a Web page into your browser you are essentially "downloading" the page from the server it is hosted on. One of the most resourceful things about the Internet is that you can download almost any type of computer file or program. Lots of them are "shareware" which means you can try them before you buy them.

Drop needle

Knitting technique that disengages a knitting needle so as to prevent knitting a stitch. This results in a vertical rib-like appearance. Typically this technique is done on interlock (double knit) constructions.

Drop Shadow

Graphic device in which type is reproduced with an offset second image on one edge, giving a shadow effect that visually lifts the primary type and makes the image appear three-dimensional.


Individual packaging, address and delivery of a product to a specific address, usually the recipient's or client's.


Digital Subscriber Line DSL is a technology that uses existing copper wiring found in almost every home and office to provide a fast connection to the Internet. Special hardware is attached to both ends of the line to allow data to transmit over the wires at a far greater speed than the standard phone wiring. It also provides a constant connection to the Internet 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, meaning there is no need to dial-in to your ISP each time you want to get online. A DSL line is most convenient in that you only need one line to carry both voice and data signals (meaning you don't have to get a second phone line). DSL is similar to ISDN in that they both operate over existing copper telephone lines (POTS) and both require short runs to a central telephone office. (DSL is not yet available in many areas because of the distance from a central office or because the local telephone companies have not yet introduced this product.) DSL provides much higher speeds, however, because connection speeds vary, many people prefer the fixed speed of an ISDN (or a T1 for that matter). Connection speeds for DSL typically range from 1.544 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and around 128 Kbps upstream. xDSL refers to the family of digital subscriber line technologies, such as ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line), HDSL (High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line), and RADSL (Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line).


Simulation of a finished printed piece.



Dye transfer

In photography, a process of producing color prints by tanning photographic emulsions and using them to transfer dye solutions to film or paper coated with gelatin.

Dyed garment

Fabric that has been dyed after the shirt is assembled. Many different types of dyeing process can be used. i.e., pigment, direct, or reactive.


Method used to impart color to textiles. It involves the use of complex organic or chemical dyestuffs, which under proper conditions will actually combine with the textile fibers. There are many ways fabric can be dyed.

Dyeing - Indigo

Indigo dye is a substance taken from the indigo plant. There are many chemical imitation indigo dyes. Indigo dye color can only be achieved through a process of dyeing, where yarn is dipped into a dye bath and is then allowed to oxidize. The number of dips determines the depth of the indigo color, the more dips, the darker the color.

Dyeing - Piece

Fabrics are dyed solid colors after they have been woven or knit, but before they are sewn into a garment. Piece dyed goods can be used in making solid and color-blocked shirts.

Dyeing - Pigment

Textile color by the use of pigments differs from reactive dyes in that pigments do not combine with the fiber molecules as reactive dyes do. Pigments hold onto the textile materials with resin binders in much the same way that paint holds to a wall. It is intentionally expected that pigments will wash out through repeated washings.

Dyeing - Reactive/Wet prints

Reactive print dyeing process produces rich colors that are very colorfast because the dye absorbs or is bonded into the fibers. Reactive dyes produce bright colors on cottons and can dye acrylics, nylon, silk, wool, and blends of these fibers. These prints produce a nice, soft hand. This process is used on print shirts.

Dyeing - Top

Yarns are dyed before the yarn is spun when the yarns are in the top state, which gives an uneven dyed or heather appearance to the yarn. Top dyeing results in a natural look of the two colors blended. This process is used on heathered and natural color shirts.

Dyeing - Vat

Vat dye is obtained through oxidation. It is usually very bright and will hold up better when bleached than most other dyes. The process is very colorfast in all respects. This is an expensive procedure and is used mainly on high-end products.

Dyeing Yarn

Yarn is dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the goods and after the spinning of the yarn. Done in either total immersion or partial immersion of the yarn. This process is especially used in patterns such as jacquards and stripes that require knitting.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Ability to perform business over the Internet.

E-Mail or Email

Ability to send information over the Internet.

Earthtones (Color Families)

Neutral shades reminiscent of colors found in nature, such as deserts, mountains, and valleys. Many of these shades serve as a base of apparel, particularly in clothing (suits, etc.). Colors include tan brown, sage, and charcoal.

Eco Spun

Fleece outerwear fabric made from at least 50% materials reclaimed from recycled plastic pop bottles.

Electronic engraving

Any artwork from child's signature to newspaper is reproduced as long as it can be wrapped around a cylindrical drum.

Electronic marketing

System using magnetic card at a checkout to give retail customers incentive credits, accumulate purchase information, issue discount coupons, authorize check-cashing, and other functions.


Medallion, logo or everyday object is buried deep in what appears to be solid glass but instead is acrylic.


Embroidered design with a finished edge, commonly an insignia of identification, usually worn on outer clothing. Also known as a crest or patch.

Emboss and color-fill

Combining hot-stamping with embossing (opposite of debossing). A raised image is stamped with foil. True embossing cannot be performed on vinyl.


Raising of an image on a product, accomplished by pressing the material between concave and convex dies.


  • Design stitched onto fabric through the use of highspeed, computer-controlled sewing machines.
  • Art of creating and producing ornamental needlework consisting of designs worked on fabric with high luster threads either by hand or machine.

Employee award

Incentive to a nonsales employee for safety, quality control, suggestions, attendance, or productivity achievement.

Employee incentive

Program designed to motivate a company's own employees with premiums given for specific actions taken or goals met. Also called recognition program.

End on end

Knit process using two yarns of alternating colors to create a microstripe pattern. In a woven, a pattern in which the warp alternates between two colors.


Purchaser of a promotional product. The recipient is one to whom the promotional product is given.

Engineered stripes

Usually yarn dyed knitwear made on modern knitting equipment with wide bands of multiple colors. The effect is not possible to achieve on less sophisticated repeat machines. This is a jersey or pique fabric with different, more complicated needle selections.


Cutting an image into metal, wood or glass by one of three methods; computerized engraving, hand tracing or hand engraving.

Envelope stuffer

Direct-mail ad circular or product included with some other mailed message.

Enzyme wash

Washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed.

EPS or .eps

Encapsulated Postscript A type of graphics file written in the PostScript language.


Imprinting method in which the product to be imaged is coated with a protective coating that resists acid. The image is then exposed, leaving bare metal and protected metal. The acid attacks only the exposed metal, leaving the image etched onto the surface.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Material hooped or placed on top of fabrics that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth, prior to embroidery. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it.

Factory Pack

Premium offered within or on a package or as a container premium.

Fair Isle

Traditional knitted patterns or horizontal bands of geometric and floral designs against a contrasting background. Named after Fair Isle, the most southern of the Shetland Isles off the northern coast of Scotland, where authentic Fair Isle sweaters are made by hand from Shetland wool.


Nonwoven fabric made by layering thin sheets of carded wool fibers, then applying heat, moisture, and pressure to shrink and compress the fibers into a thick matted cloth that will not ravel or fray.


Abbreviation for freehand.

Fire Wall or Firewall

Software application that restricts unauthorized people on the Internet from accessing an internal Web site.

Fired decals

Decal that actually becomes part of the piece to which it is applied.

Fisherman knits

Distinctive knitted patterns that originated on the Aran Islands off the coast of Ireland. Each family had its own highly recognized patterns, which were used to identify the remains of fishermen lost at sea.


Light to heavyweight plain or twill weave fabric with a napped surface. Can be made of cotton or wool. The brushing process creates insulating air cells that provide more warmth than plain cotton.


Flax is the plant, linen yarns are made from flax. Linen is stronger that cotton. It is one of the oldest textile fibers known.


Luxurious fabric with a thick deep nap that provides warmth without weight. May be twill or plain weave. The term correctly applies only to wool fabrics, although there are so-called fleeces of other fabrics.


Imprinting method for paper in which a flexible rubber plate is wrapped around a cylinder. As the paper moves under the plate, it is pressed against it by another roller, and the ink is transferred on the paper.

Foil stamping

Process in which a metal plate or die is heated and then pressed against foil into a surface, causing the pigments of the foil to transfer to the surface. Also called hot-stamping.

Four-color process

Printing process that creates color productions by overprinting screens that individually print reds, yellows, blues and blacks of variable specified intensities.


Number of separate HTML documents that interact with each other on a single web page.

Franchise line

Arrangement where a supplier specifies restrictions, such as minimum, volume, number of distributors in a geographical area and credit, in order for a distributor to carry its line.


Word whose use is not as severely restricted as it once was - but it's still wise to be sure it really is free if the advertising says it is. Conditions on which the free offer is made should be clearly stated.

Free mail-in

Consumer offer of premium by mail for proof-ofpurchase - plus, usually a sum for postage and handling.

French Terry or Fleece

Pile knit fabric with uncut loops on one side. IT is called fleece if the loops are sheared and brushed. A pile, woven fabric with uncut loops is called terrycloth.

Frequency of exposure

Number of times an individual or household is exposed to a particular ad message in a specific period of time.

Frequency program

Promotion that provides those participating with points, redeemable for merchandise or services.

Frequent-buyer incentive

Continuing offers designed to build customer loyalty; akin to coupon plan or trading stamps.


File Transfer Protocol. A protocol agreed upon to transfer files over the Internet from one location to another.

Fulfillment house

Service firm that processes premium and specialty orders, often packaging and mailing the items. Other services offered include warehousing, accounting, and coupon-redemption management.


Knitting process whereby the pattern shape of an individual garment piece is formed on the knitting machine as opposed to being cut from a piece of cloth. Full-fashioned garments are typically expensive sweater knits where the sleeve is knit together with the body of the machine. Full fashioned collar trims allow for one to control the shape/angle of the collar points.


Stands for "functional capability" Use is deprecated in contexts where just "function" means the right thing. (Marketing people seem to think the two are synonymous and that "functionality" has a more impressive sound to it.)

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Popular fabric with a smooth face and a dull sheen, made with a tight twill weave and worsted yarns. Fabric has a distinct, closely set diagonal rib on the face and a plain back. Made in various weights for men's and women's outerwear, sportswear, suits, dresses, and uniforms.


Includes a variety of chance promotions such as contests, sweepstakes, etc.

Garment wash

Process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured that softens and pre-shrinks.


This means a cap has been sewn and made and then washed in a washing facility. This creates the popular faded, worn look around the edges and looks more natural than the material pre-washed caps.


Measure of the fineness or coarseness of knit fabrics. Refers to the number of loops (knit stitches) in an inch. The higher the gauge, the finer the fabric.

GIF or .gif

Graphics Interchange Format Developed by Compuserve using compression technology from Unisys. On the World Wide Web pictures and graphics you see on Web pages are usually in GIF format because the files are small and download quickly. Another type of graphics format used commonly are JPEG these files download even faster and contain a better resolution but cannot be interlaced so many Web page authors tend to opt for using GIF's instead to get that "melting" onto the screen effect that happens with interlaced images.

GIF89a or GIF animation

A type of GIF format which allows a series of images to be displayed one after another or on top of each other.


A low-cost item handed out fairly freely-akin to an advertising specialty or a traffic builder. Now also sometimes used as a term for any direct premium.

Gromment-sewn slot

Caps that have a back strap made of cotton or leather and buckle, and have a slot where the end of the strap tucks into the hat. This slot can either be trimmed with stitching creating a sewn slot, or with a metal creating a grommet.

Group travel

Incentive program in which qualifiers (and spouses usually) travel together to a single destination; business meetings are often included.

Gun club check

Double-check design that uses three colors to form a larger check over a smaller check.


Inlaid piece of fabric, usually triangular, between arm and body of shirt. Allows ease of movement.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Half-moon label mount

Fabric sewn inside the back of the garment just below the neck to add hanger appeal and to allow for placement of the label without visible stitches.


Engraving made by photographing through a glass screen that breaks the subject into small dots of varying intensities of gray, ranging from white to black.


Quality of characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch, e.g., softness, firmness, drapability, fineness of the feel.

Hand Engraving

Used for detailed work on materials ranging from metal to eggshells. Not practical for volume orders.


Computer and peripherals as distinguished from software, which is a program for operating hardware.

Heat-transfer printing

  1. Direct-transfer process
    Imprinting method in which an image is screened onto a transfer substrate, which is then laid directly on the material to be imprinted. The image is transferred from the substrate to the material through heat and pressure.
  2. Sublimation
    Process in which a design is transferred to a synthetic fabric by heat and pressure. The heat causes the inks to turn into a gas so that they penetrate the fabric and combine with it to form a permanent imprint. Also called a plastocal transfer.

Heather yarn

Tow (or more) toned yarn which is knit or woven to create a soft tonal effect.


Knit shirt with buttoned placket at the neckline with no collar. Copied from a shirt originally worn by a rower in Henley, England.


Broken twill weave fabric created by changing the direction of twill from right to left and back again. This creates a chevron pattern. Herringbone fabrics are made in a variety of weights, patterns, and fiber types. Herringbone patterns can also be knitted as a jacquard.


Combination of several layers of refractive material that causes the image to have a three-dimensional effect.

Home page or homepage

Entry point to a Web site. The first page that viewers see. Also the Web page that loads when a browser is first started up.


Rough, coarse, tweed-like fabric made with thick, uneven yarns and a plain weave. Once made by hand, now produced on power looms.

Hostess/Host gift

Way of compensating a customer who hosts a party plan.

Hot stamping

Dry imprinting process in which a design or type is set on a relief die that is subsequently impressed by heat and pressure onto the printing surface.

Hot type

Type composed by machine and made from molten metal.


Popular wool pattern made with a variation of the twill weave to form jagged broken checks. It is not widely used to make many types of fabrics, especially suitings.


HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. Language that defines styles for Web pages such as headings, paragraphs, lists, tables as well as characters such as type size and typestyle (boldface, italic, etc.).


Hyper text transfer protocol. A protocol agreed upon to access information on the Web. Sites with security certificates will be shown as HTTPS.


The text you find on a Web site which can be "clicked on" with a mouse which in turn will take you to another web page or a different area of the same web page. Hyperlinks are created or "coded" in HTML. They are also used to load multimedia files such as AVI movies and AU sound files.


Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Image advertising

Advertising to make an organization's relevant publics have more positive attitudes toward it.

Image map or Imagemap

An image or graphic that has been coded to contain interactive areas. When it’s clicked on, it launches another Web page or program. There’s a subtle distinction between an imagemap and a clickable graphic. An imagemap usually has many different hyperlinked areas, known as links. For example, an imagemap of a country could be coded so that when a user clicks on a city or region, the browser is routed to a document or Web page about that place. A clickable graphic, on the other hand usually contains just one link.


Device that outputs type, line art, and photos in position.

Imprinted product

Merchandise featuring a company's logo, slogan, or other corporate identification.

In lieu of interest

Premium offered by a financial institution instead of all or part of normal interest payments.


Premium offered inside a products being sold. Also called package enclosure.


Reward for performance. Merchandise or travel offered to consumers, salespeople, dealers, or employees as a tangible reward for purchase or performance.

Incentive catalog company

Company that puts together a catalog premium and incentive program for an end-buyer.

Incentive representative

Specialized manufacturer's representative servicing premium users; a commission salesperson representing several different manufacturers.

Incentive contractor

Salesperson operating his or her own business as an independent agent of a distributor.

Industrial advertising

Advertising directed at businesses or enterprises that produce goods/services that are ultimately sold to other businesses or commercial consumers.

Injection molding

Process in which molten metal or plastic is injected into the cavity of a carved die.

Ink jet

Printer that reproduces by projecting ink onto paper without the mechanical impact of plates.

Institutional advertising

Advertising on behalf of a corporation or institution rather than for a product.


Design that is impressed into its base material.

Interactive kiosks

Usually a kiosk of computers connected to the Internet located strategically in offices for easy access to the Internet.

Interlaced GIF

Interlaced GIFs appear first with poor resolution and then improve in resolution until the entire image has arrived, as opposed to arriving linearly from the top row to the bottom row. This is great to get a quick idea of what the entire image will look like while waiting for the rest. This doesn't do much for you if your Web browser doesn't support progressive display as the image is downloaded, but non-progressive-display Web browsers will still display interlaced GIFs once they have arrived in their entirety. You can make transparent and interlaced GIFs through the Web without running any utility software on your own system through the Visioneering image manipulation page, which will access your image through the Web and produce an enhanced version for you to save.


Firm double knit fabric. Both sides of the fabric look the same (similar to the face of jersey). Used in short sleeve knit shirts.

Internal server

A server that is accessible only to people within a defined network.


a.k.a. "the Net" Originally designed by the U.S. Defense Department so that a communication signal could withstand a nuclear war and serve military institutions worldwide, the Internet, was first known as the ARPAnet. A system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, and newsgroups. The Internet is a way of connecting existing computer networks that greatly extends the reach of each participating system. When you see internet written with a lower case "i" it usually refers to a group of local area networks (LANs) that have been connected by means of a common communications protocol. Many internets exist besides the Internet, including many TCP/IP based networks that are not linked to the Internet. The Defense Data Network is a case in point.

Internet service provider

Charges startup and monthly fees to users and provides them with the initial host connection to the rest of the Internet usually via a dial-up connection.


An internal Web site harnessing the power of the Web to deliver information and perform transactions via a dial-up connection.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Type of woven or knitted fabric, which is constructed on a special machine that uses needle selection which results in intricate, complex all-over designs. Single knit jacquards are commonly knit with two separate colored yarns that are knit together in a row. Double knit jacquards are knit with up to five separate colored yarns across a row. Double knits are generally much more intricate, more colorful and yet heavier (mostly used in long sleeve product). Woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask and tapestry.


Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java is a programming language that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. Java is a simple, robust, object-oriented, platformindependent multi-threaded, dynamic general-purpose programming environment. It is best for creating applets and applications for the Internet, intranets and any other complex, distributed network.

Java applets

Mini programs that run on a webpage or a website to perform complicated tasks.


Single knit construction which has rows of vertical loops (knit stitches) on the face and rows of horizontal half-loops (purl stitches) on the back. Jersey can be any fiber content and can be knit flat or circular. Often used in short sleeve knit shirts.

Jewel Tones (Color Families)

Are still deeper, saturated, more vibrant colors that include brights, such as emerald green, ruby red, and sapphire blue that cross seasons.

JPG/JPEG or .jpg/.jpeg

Joint Photographic Experts Group is a standard compression format for high-resolution color images

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Premium offered via direct mail as an incentive for the consumer to try a new product/service or to complete a questionnaire.


To add or delete space between pairs of adjacent characters. Also known as letterspacing.

Keyline drawing

Outline drawing on finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc.


Light brown cotton used for Indian army uniforms.


A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.


Fabrics constructed by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns by hand or by machine. Can be any fiber content. (See double knit, interlock, and jersey).

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Fine soft wool from the first shearing of a lamb, usually when it is about seven months old


Coated with clear plastic, or two separate sheets of paper joined together as a single sheet to provide a special thickness or varying colors from side to side.

Laser Engraved

Imprinting method by which art or lettering is cut into a material by a laser beam that vaporizes the portion exposed through openings in a template.


Has subcategories, including genuine (top-grain or full grain leather from the outermost layer of hide); splits (underlayers split off from the top grain, usually having a surface treatment to simulate color and grain of genuine leather), and processed leather (one type of skin or hide made to resemble another type usually called "bonded leather" or "laminated leather").


Product usually given by a salesperson that serves to act as a reminder of his or her visit, company, or product/service.

Lenticular printing

Process of creating multidimensional, animated or biview effects by photographing with an extremely fine screen and placing plastic made up of tiny lenses over the top.


Embroidery using letters or words. Lettering, commonly called "keyboard lettering," may be created from circuit boards that allow variance of letter style, size, height, density, and other characteristics.

Letterpress printing

Printing method in which ink is carried on a raised surface to the page or object being printed.

Line art

Black-and-white illustration of reproduction quality.

Line conversion

Photograph reproduction as a line illustration, accomplished by shooting the photo without a screen and omitting the middle tones.

Line name

Name used by a supplier to identify its line of products, generally to protect the confidentiality of the distributor's sources.

Liquid crystals

Technology used to produce temperature reactive products which change colors, going through a range of reddish browns, greens, and blues.

List broker

Person or firm specializing in selling or leasing lists names for direct mail use.


An automatic mailing list server developed by Eric Thomas for BITNET in 1986. When e-mail is addressed to a LISTSERV mailing list, it is automatically broadcast to everyone on the list. The result is similar to a newsgroup or forum, except that the messages are transmitted as e-mail and are therefore available only to individuals on the list. LISTSERV is currently a commercial product marketed by L-Soft International. Although LISTSERV refers to a specific mailing list server, the term is sometimes used incorrectly to refer to any mailing list server. Another popular mailing list server is Majordomo, which is freeware.

Litho laminating

Process of mounting a printed lithography sheet to single-faced corrugated to produce a display-quality piece that is structural corrugated.


Obsolete term (also "dealer loader) for a dealer premium given with specified product purchase. In disfavor because of obvious negative connotation. "Dealer premium" or dealer incentive" has replaced it.

Local Area Network or LAN

Linking of workstations, storage units (file servers) and print-out devices (print servers).

Locker loop

Looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment of a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of the garment.

Locker patch

Semi-oval panel sewn into the back of the garment just under the collar seam to reinforce the garment to minimize stretching when hung on a hook.

Logo or Logotype

Style of lettering or design of a company used as a trademark to identify itself.


Plan that awards a prize on the basis of chance and requires consideration to enter. It becomes a legal sweepstakes or game when consideration is removed, or a contest when chance is eliminated.


Dupont's trademark from spandex fiber. Spandex has excellent stretch and is always blended with other fibers, imparting stretch to the resulting fabric.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Abbreviation for a MacIntosh computer or laptop.


Hand loomed Indian cotton fabric in plaids, checks, or stripes all colorfully intermingled. Because the yarn is dyed with natural vegetable dyes, colors run together (bleeding), producing a muted effect. The weave itself has many slubs and imperfections.


Premium consumers can order through the mail, usually with proof-of-purchase, on a free or selfliquidating basis.

Mainframe system

A high-end computer system capable of performing billions of transactions per second.


Rerun of an advertisement designed to compensate for a mistake made.

Maret profile

Description in demographic or psychographic terms of those people who use a particular product and thus constitute its market.

Market segmentation

Breakdown of a market into subsections, each with distinct demographic, psychographic and/or consumption characteristics.

Market share

Proportion of sales in a product market that is held by an individual brand of that product.

Marketing mix

Blending of a variety of marketing elements (price, packaging, distribution, promotion, public relations, etc.) into a marketing program.

Master Advertising Specialist (MAS)

Designated industry title signifying that the holder has attained 17 certified education units by attending 170 hours of educational offerings.

Matte finish

Dull paper finish without gloss or luster.


Final make-up of printed advertisement before transformation onto a printing plate.

Media planning

Process that develops media goals and strategies and specific plans to implement these goals and strategies.

Media strategy

Strategy concerned with how ad messages will be delivered to consumers. It involves: identifying the characteristics of the target audience, who should receive ad messages and defining the characteristics of the media that will be used for the delivery of the ad messages.

Medium (plural, media)

Established vehicle for transmitting promotional/ad messages to the target audience.


A million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.


Dense, thick coating fabric with a smooth face, made with a tight plain or twill weave and two sets of softly twisted filling yarns. It is heavily fulled napped to hide all traces of the weave. Named for Melton Mowbray, a town in Leicestershire, England, where the original cloth was used to make hunting outfits.


Improves the quality of cotton fibers and fabrics. Provides added strength, luster, and ability to accept and hold dyes. Mercerization is a chemical process that swells the yarn, resulting in a smoother and more dye receptive yarn/fabric.

Merchandise proof

Product imprinted with the specified design/copy of an issued purchase order, used to clarify the appearance of the product and the imprint prior to manufacturing.


Very fine wool from the Merino breed of sheep, used to make the finest of woolen and worsted cloths.

Metal casting

Production method in which jewelry or other material is shaped by covering a mold with molten metal.


Super fine polyester filament yarn recently developed. Microfiber has superior hand feel and draping characteristics to ordinary polyester yarn. Because the fabric is high-count polyester or nylon yarns, it is durable, water-repellent, and windproof, and retains its color, resilience, and soft touch.

Midtones (Color Families)

Transitional colors such as dusty blue, rose pink, sunflower yellow, and salmon that cross seasons and climates, and are less intense than jewel tones.


Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions A protocol for internet email that enables the transmission of nontextual data such as graphics, audio, video and other binary types of files. An e-mail program such as Eudora is said to be "MIME Compliant" if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really readable. Besides e-mail software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the browsers' list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type.


MOdulator/DEModulator. Device that converts computer data into high-frequency signals or vice versa, for transmission over phone lines.


Screen pattern caused by the clash of dot patterns when two or more screens are used.

Molded materials

Made by pouring molten plastic (usually polypropylene) into a cavity to make a hard, seamless shell.


Embroidered design composed of one or more letters, usually the initials in a name.


Stimulation of a salesperson's, dealer's, or employee's innate desires and personal objectives by a program of recognition or achievement through merchandise or travel incentive techniques.

Mounting and finishing

Manufacturing of a display, applying litho, die-cutting and assembly.

MPEG file

Motion Pictures Experts Group is a standard compression format for video and sound. It can be used to display and hear online movies.

Multi-line rep

Independent contractor representing several different supplier lines.


Screenprinting fabric made of two or more strands of material twisted around one another.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Nail head

General term for a variety of small woven patterns, including bird's eye, dots and small houndstooth. It is usually associated with clear finished worsted suitings, such as sharkskin.


Raised surface or pile of a fabric, such as fleece, formed by distressing it

Nav bar

Short for "navigation bar" The set of directional tools you are presented with on a Web site. The options listed and hyperlinked on a web page - usually determined by the names of the sections of a website. Inherent to the name "Web" almost all web pages are "linked" in numerous places to numerous other pages. Nav bars are supposed to help in guiding a user through the tangled mess.


Screenprinting fabric made of two or more strands of material twisted around one another.


Premium separate from, but adjacent to, the merchandise being promoted.

Nonrepro blue

Color that does not reproduce in final production, used to mark instructions and corrections on cameraready art.


Former name of Association of Incentive Marketing.


High strength, high abrasion resistance, low absorbency, good elasticity. Texture varies from smooth and crisp to soft and bulky.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Offset lithography

Printing process in which the image is transferred to a rubber blanket, which in turn applies it to the surface to be printed.

Offset printing

Printing process in which a positive image is transferred to a rubber blanket in reverse, which in turn applies it to the surface to be printed, right reading.


Design that has graduations in color, usually it is shades of one family of color or can change colors, such as from green to blue.


Direct premium attached to the outside of the product's container.


Heaviness of ink coverage.

Open line

Product line a supplier will sell to all distributors. Also known as a general line.

Overlay proof

Off-press color proof produced with four dyed or pigmented overlay films.


Specialties produced in excess of the number originally ordered.


Soft, somewhat porous and rather stout cotton shirting weave gives a silk like finish, also made from spun rayon, acetate, and other man-made fibers. Oxford also means a woolen or worsted fabric with a grayish cast.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Pad printing

Method of imprinting in which a recessed surface is covered with ink. When the plate is wiped clean, ink remains in the recessed area. A silicone pad then presses against the plate, pulls the ink out of the recesses and is pressed directly against the product.

Page description language

Method for communicating page, font, and graphic information from the workstation to the print-out device.


Process of performing page makeup automatically.


Abstract scroll pattern that originated in Paisley, Scotland.


Five and six-panel caps. Six panels sewn together from the crown of the cap creating a seam down the front of the cap. Good for embroidery, but not a good choice for printing. A five-panel cap has five panels sewn together to form the crown of the cap. Since there is not seam down the front of the cap, five panels are an ideal choice for printing and embroidery.


Master letters or designs are traced with a stylus that is connected to and followed by a cutting tool that pushes the lettering or image into metal. Used in many jewelry shops to engrave silver-plated bowls and cups.

PMS Colors

Color scale used to precisely match colors for printing. Each hue has a coded number indicating instructions for mixing inks to achieve that hue.

Paper proof

Impression of type or artwork on paper so the correctness and quality of the material to be printed can be checked. The least expensive is a regular black and white faxed paper proof. The most expensive is an actual physical preproduction sample of the product itself.

Part-cash redemption

Option, often included with coupon programs, allowing the customer to get a premium more quickly by sending fewer coupons plus a specified cash amount.


Act of producing mechanical art.

Pastels (Color Families)

Soft unwashed colors such as sky blue, seafoam green, coral, baby pink, and butter yellow that are used predominantly in spring and summer deliveries and in warmer climates.


Portable Bitmap


Photo CD




ZSoft Paintbrush

PDF or .pdf

Adobe Acrobat

Peach finish

Soft hand usually obtained by brushing the fabric lightly. It can also be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.

Pencil rub

Low-cost way of producing a "sample" of an embroidery design. Consists literally of a piece of tracing paper placed over a sew-out and rubbed lightly with a pencil to produce an impression for the embroidery.

Per inquiry

Means of media payment used in direct-response programs.

Perceived value

What someone believes promotional merchandise is worth.

Permanent press

Improves the wrinkle recovery and shape retention qualities of fabrics.


To imprint the recipient's name on a particular product. Also referred to as "Personalization".


Products that are specially manufactured for dyeing; 100% cotton thread, oversized cut to allow for shrinkage; no optical brighteners for even dye coverage.


Transparent image or ghost superimposed over a subject.


Printing process using an acid solution to etch a photograph onto a metal surface.

Photographic imaging

  1. Photometal processes actually develop metal by using photosensitive, anodized aluminum in either metal stock or metal sheet stock.
  2. Chemical etching uses negative or camera-ready artwork, exposes it and coats the metal using acid or other more toxic chemicals to eat away impressions on the metal not covered by film.

Photomechanical transfer (PMT)

Diffusion-transfer process used to resize or copy images.


Black-and-white reproduction of original art, generally not acceptable as "camera-ready" art.

Piece-a-week offer

Self-liquidating or profit-making retail offer of related premiums, once a week for 12 to 15 weeks, with specified purchases.

Pigment dyed

Caps are colored with a particular pigment that reacts with the washing to create a faded look.


Very small check pattern that is popular for suits, sportswear and outerwear.


Single knit construction also known as honeycomb or mesh. An open knit surface with a coarser hand than jersey or interlock.


(Slits in apparel forming a closure). A small boxed area at the bottom of where the buttons are.

Plain weave

Simplest, most common of three basic weaves (over one/under one interlacement). Provides a smooth surface for printing. The other basic weaves are satin and twill. (See Broadcloth, Chambray, and Poplin).


Rubber or metal image carrier that transfers ink to the printing surface.




Portable Network Graphics

Point-based system

Program in which recipients earn premiums based on an acquired number of points.

Point-of-purchase (POP) advertising

Advertising materials such as displays and cards that are placed in retail stores to draw attention to a product.


Versatile in weights and textures for weaves and knits. Resists wrinkling. Excellent shape retention.


Medium to heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Usually poplin is constructed with fine yarn, densely woven, resulting in a crisp, dressy appearance.

Position proof

Color proofs for checking position, layout and/or color breakout of image elements.


Image reproduction with the same density values as the original.


Resin treated fabric is cut and sewn. The finished garment is then cured in a high temperature curing oven.

PPT or .ppt

Microsoft PowerPoint


Product, imprinted or not, that is given for performing some task or duty, e.g., a gift with a purchase.

Premium rep

Incentive representative.

Premium show

Exhibition featuring displays of incentive suppliers.

Press Proof

Proof of a color subject made on printing press in advance of the production run.


Reward given to the winner in a contest, sweepstakes, or lottery; also sometimes refers to a sales incentive award.

Pro forma invoice

Invoice issued as a matter of record and sent to the distributor prior to the shipment of products to confirm the specifications.


Height of a cap's crown. Low-profile is approximately 3.5". Regular profile is approximately 3.75". Pro-style is somewhere in-between the two.

Progressive proofs or 'progs'

  • Color proofs that show the reproduction of each color plate separately and in combination with each other. Also called color keys.
  • Proofs made from separate plates in color work showing sequence of printing and result after each color has been applied.

Promotional buyer

Advertiser or other purchaser of promotional products from distributors. Also know as end-user.

Promotional product

Useful or interesting article of merchandise usually carrying an imprinted advertising or promotional message.


Impression of type or artwork on paper to allow the correctness and quality of the material to be checked.


Box-top, label, trademark, coupon, UPC symbol or other token from a product, which qualifies a consumer to receive a premium.


Design concept expressing an element's relationship of length to width.

Protected domains

Areas that are accessible only by authorized people usually by the use of a Fire Wall.

Proxy or Proxy server

A technique used to cache information on a Web server and acts as an intermediary between a Web client and that Web server. It basically holds the most commonly and recently used content from the World Wide Web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase server security. This is common for an ISP especially if they have a slow link to the Internet. Proxy servers are also constructs that allow direct Internet access from behind a firewall. They open a socket on the server, and allow communication via that socket to the Internet. For example, if your computer is inside a protected network, and you want to browse the Web using Netscape, you would set up a proxy server on a firewall. The proxy server would be configured to allow requests from your computer, trying for port 80, to connect to its port 1080, and it would then redirect all requests to the proper places.

PSD or .psd



Measurement of the psychological and lifestyle characteristics of individuals or households.

Puff prints

Screening process using puff inks. After screening, the product is exposed to heat. A chemical additive in the ink causes it to rise, creating a raised surface.

Purchase privilege offer

Term little used. Once commonly applied to selfliquidating food-store promotions akin to the taperedemption or continuity programs, often using punched trade cards.


Self-liquidating direct premium offer.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

QXD or .qxd


Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Rack stitch

Knit pattern produced by a shift in the needle bed that creates a herringbone effect.


Raglan sleeve is stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck. It makes for ease of movement.


Strong staple fiber of cellulose yielded by the inner bark of the ramie plant. Often used as a less expensive substitute for linen or cotton.

Random sample

Single copy of a product with a random imprint.

Raster graphics

Raster-based graphics have become a standard technology and are popularly known by their GIF and JPEG formats. Raster graphics use pixel-by-pixel definitions as opposed to vector graphics which use computer algorithms to describe shapes, lines, animation, etc.


High absorbency, bright or dull luster, pleasant hand. Does well in brilliant colors.

Redemption center

Store maintained by a trading-stamp company, where customers can redeem filled stamp books for premiums.

Redemption reserve

Funds put aside by a stamp firm or the user of a coupon plan to pay the cost of merchandise for future redemptions - which may come in several years after original issue of stamps or coupons. Also used by food stores in tape programs.

Referral premium

Item offered to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or associate.

Register marks

Cross-hair marks applied to negatives, artwork, photographs or mechanicals to ensure precise register on the final product.


Process by which two or more hot-stamps are aligned, so the multicolored foils fit the image area perfectly.

Representative or 'rep'

Salesperson for an advertising or promotional medium.

Reprocessed wool

Wool that has been reclaimed from manufactured products that have not been used by a consumer, including dyed or undyed yarn, and fabric scraps from mills and clothing manufacturers. The wool is returned to fiber form and spun into new yarns, which are used to make fabrics of low to medium quality.

Reserve account

Arrangement whereby a portion of the salesperson's commission is set aside to compensate for order cancellations and invoicing adjustments.


Density of dots for any given output device. The unit of measurement is dots per inch (dpi).

Restricted line

Product line where a supplier specifies the minimum volume, credit or geographic location of distributors permitted to sell it.


Process of improving/highlighting necessary details in a picture, photograph, print or drawing.

Reused wool

Wool that has been reclaimed from manufactured products after they have been used by consumers. The wool is returned to fiber form, cleansed or overdyed, and spun again into new yarns, which are used to make inexpensive low-quality fabrics.


Mirror like inversion of elements on a printing plate in relation to their order on the surface printed from it.

Reverse jersey

Knit that uses the back side of jersey fabric for the face of the garment.

Rib knit

Knitted fabric produced with two sets of needles (double knit) in which the vertical rows of loops (wales) can be seen alternately on the face and back. Stretch in the width is excellent.

Romance card

Usually a card or small folder containing information relating to the origin or history of the specialty that it accompanies.


Relies on a computer and controller to send messages concerning the desired design to a flat-bed engraving table.


Type of printing, utilizing an etched copper cylinder.


Clear orange coating on an acetate base, used in preparing camera-ready artwork when one or more colors will be used. Also know as amberlith.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Safety program

Promotional program designed to raise safety awareness and recognize those who follow safe onthe-job practices.

Sales contest

Sales-incentive program. The word "contest" is used less today than previously, since direct competition among salespeople is not longer the rule.

Sales incentive

Premium or monetary reward offered to salespeople for attaining a specified performance level.

Sales promotion

Program designed to stimulate immediate action on the part of the consumer, generally by adding value to a purchase or action taken.

Sample rebate

Compensation by a supplier, issued to distributors when they sell a specific minimum amount of specialties of which the distributor has purchased samples.

San wash

Sand is added to the piece of garment washing process to create a subtle weathered look. Results in a soft, lightly brushed feel. Used mainly in woven fabrics.


Controls the shrinkage of fabrics to less than 1%.

San-serif type

Typestyle without cross strokes at the end of the main strokes.

Saver plan

See "tape plan."


General term for especially high-quality fabrics of merino wool, usually used for coats and suits. The term originally described fabrics made only from the wool of Saxony sheep, a superior strain of merino developed in Germany.


To impress a mark in a sheet of paper to facilitate folding and help it lie flat.


Series of dots used to reproduce halftones or blended colors. As the percentage of screen increases, the color prints darken.

Screen charge

Charge by suppliers for creating a silkscreen of the artwork used for imprinting products.

Screen tints

Process in which shading and tinting are added to a line reproduction.


Imprinting method in which the image is transferred to the printed surface by ink squeegeed through a stenciled screen stretched over a frame. Screens are treated with a light-sensitive emulsion, then film positives are put in contact with the screens and exposed to light. The light hardens the emulsion not covered by the film, leaving a soft area on the screen for the squeegee to force ink through. Also called silkscreening.



Search engine

Software system to locate information or to look at information on a Web site based on criteria entered.


Lightweight cotton type, color striped fabric with permanent lengthwise alternating puckered striped and felt stripe sections.

Selective media

Advertising media such as specialty advertising and direct mail that can be targeted to specific limited audiences. Also called targeted media.


Proof-of-purchase premium offered to consumers for a sum of money to cover the cost of premium plus postage and handling.


Premium with a cost only partially covered by the purchase price at which it is offered.

Serif type

Any typeface with letters having a cross stroke at the end of the main stroke.

Set-up charge

Special charges added to certain products in a catalog. It covers the cost of preparing the type for the press and the actual printing.


Software available for downloading on the Internet that you can try before you buy. Users who want to continue to use the program are expected to pay a registration fee (rarely more than U.S. $100). In return they get documentation, technical support, and any updated versions.


High-quality worsted suiting fabric with a smooth sleek face and a slightly iridescent sheen, resembling the skin of a shark. Made with a twill weave, and yarns of alternating colors, usually a lighter color with a darker one. It may be plain or woven with fancy patterns.


General term for a tanned hide with the wool still intact. Used to make exceptionally durable outerwear.


Simplest, most common of the three basic weaves (over one/under one interlacement). It provides a smooth surface for printing. The other basic weaves are satin and twill.

Sherpa fleece

Fleece fabric where the brushed/napped side is used as the face of the garment.


Very fine, lustrous wool from the downy soft undercoat of Shetland sheep, raised on the Shetland Islands off the northern coast of Scotland. Available in limited quantities of natural colors and used to make software, knitwear, sportswear, and coats. The term has been used rather loosely by the apparel industry to describe similar fabrics and clothing, especially sweaters, made from coarser types of wool.

Shipping date

Date an order should be shipped from the factory to the purchasing client.


A Web browser plugin which provides for Macromedia Director movies to be viewed on World Wide Web pages. Shockwave is a key component of Macromedia's solution for interactive professionals who develop digital media for the World Wide Web. If you have created an interactive movie using Macromedia Director, you will need to compress the movie through a program called "Afterburner" before you can use it as Shockwave on a Web site.

Shopping cart enabled site

Web site with functional shopping cart engine to perform transactions (accept orders).


Lightweight fabrics with natural, deep luster. Shiny surface. Versatile in weight and texture. Long wearing.


Term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn. The smaller the number, the thicker the yarn.


Initial rough drawing in pencil, ink or color to determine the arrangement of an artwork.


Printed area without type or other illustrations.

Spec sample

A product sample carrying a prospective buyers' imprint, produced with the expectation that the prospect will order it.

Specialty advertising

Medium of advertising, sales promotion and motivational communication employing imprinted, useful or decorative products called advertising specialties; a subset of promotional products.

Speculative sample or 'spec' sample

Product sample carrying a prospective buyer's imprint, produced with the expectation that the prospect will order it.

Spot color

Color used usually for accent


Brief promotion within a longer campaign, designed to maintain interest by awarding interim incentives.


Controls the penetration of spots and stains.

Stat paper

Photo print of an art made by a camera. Use stat paper only on final proofs before going to production.


Same image printed continuously in a pattern on the same sheet of paper.

Stock designs

Digitized generic embroidery designs that are readily available at a cost below that of custom-digitized designs.

Stone wash

Pumice stones (lava rock) are added to the piece or garment washing process resulting in a soft and abraded worn appearance particularly where there are seams.

Storm flap

Strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of outerwear garments to form a barrier against wind and moisture.


Creating a rough outline of what the Web site will look like.

Stratified selection

Separation of a target audience into various levels or strata.


Attaching, putting together or assembling in negative film from the separate elements of an ad, brochure, flyer or other printed materials into one cohesive unit.


Dye transfer process where the image consists of a colored dye permanently embedded into the material surface of pores. Used to imprint messages, graphics and photographs on a variety of items, primarily mousepads, mugs, T-shirts, caps and trophy medals.

Sueded nylon

A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.


Promotional products company which manufactures, imports, converts, imprints, or otherwise produces or processes promotional products offered for sale through promotional products distributors.

Swatch proof

Sample of the material of the product to be purchased, imprinted with the advertising artwork in the colors specified for the imprint.


Chance-based promotion or game for prizes, for which no purchase is required; usually based on randomly drawn numbers.


Satin stitch embroidery. Embroidery remains a government-support industry in Switzerland today.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)

Tackle twill

Letters or numbers cut from polyester or rayon twill fabric that are commonly used for athletic teams and organizations. Tackle twill appliqués attached to a garment have an adhesive backing that tacks them in place; the edges of the appliqués are then zipzap stitched.

Tape plan

More formally, "cash-register-tape redemption plan.” A continuity promotion by supermarkets, offering one or more premiums in return for register tapes, coupons, or stamps representing specified purchases and most often, cash amounts sufficient to make the promotion self-liquidating or profitable.


Woolen fabric made with a plain or twill weave in a variety of different plaid patterns, each belonging to a specific Scottish clan.


Durable nylon fabric that is generally used for rugged outerwear.

Tattersall check

Simple check pattern with a loud appearance, made with two colors against a white or contrasting background. Gaudy combinations of bold colors are common. Checks are usually about a half-inch square.

Temperature reactive or thermocromatic inks

Process of applying a special ink that disappears to reveal a hidden message when heat is applied. For instance, used on a mug so that when hot liquid is poured into, the message appears or on a glass, so that when cold liquid is poured into it, the message appears.


Produced by Courtaulds from the cellulose in harvested wood pulp. Fabrics with Tencel have superior shrinkage control characteristics. The unique properties produce deep vibrant colors.


One trillion bytes.

Terrain cloth

High-density air-textured nylon.


Any of a half a dozen methods of measuring appeal of a premium in advance of a promotion. Frequently done by personal interviews, sometimes by a mail ballot of split-run newspaper advertising.



Thermal engraving

Melts an image into the metal, based on a die. Often used for small items such as name badges and small signs.

Thermal dye sublimation

Like thermal printers, except pigments are vaporized and float to desired proofing stock. Similar to Thermal Dye Diffusion Transfer, or D2T2.


Means of imprinting in which powder is added to the image to be printed. When heated, the powder fuses with the ink, and the image appears in relief.

TIFF or .tif

Tagged Image File Format A file format for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications.

Tint block

A photoengraving used to print tints of any percentage of color.


Preprinted card bound or partially bound into a periodical.


To attach endsheets or other material to the outside of folded sections by machine applications of thin strip of adhesive.


Using a matching color thread to embroider a garment. For example, a navy shirt tonal embroidery would use a matching navy thread to create an embossed look.

Tone on tone

Different shades of the same color as the garment are used for embroidery thread. For example, a navy blue shirt with a light blue and royal blue embroidery.


Natural twisting that occurs when a circular knit fabric is in a relaxed state. A circular knit is knit in a spiral motion and therefore "straight" stripes want to twist. This phenomenon usually occurs in poor quality jacquard knits and is minimized by compacting and the use of stabilizing resins.

Trade advertising

Advertising directed at members of the wholesale or retail trade.

Trade character

Visual identification or personification of a particular brand, merchandise, or advertiser.

Trade stamp

Gummed stamp given by a retailer, usually for each 10 cents of purchase, to be pasted in a save-book or card, redeemable for premiums presented in the stamp-company catalog.

Traffic builder

Specialty or premium designed to get consumers to enter a store or a tradeshow exhibit.


Full-color, translucent, photographic film positive.

Transparent GIF

Transparent GIFs are useful because they appear to blend in smoothly with the user's display, even if the user has set a background color that differs from that the developer expected. They do this by assigning one color to be transparent -- if the Web browser supports transparency, that color will be replaced by the browser's background color, whatever it may be.

Transparent ink

Printing ink that does not completely conceal the color of the carrying material beneath.


Process of adjusting adjacent colors to account for misregistration, which occurs due to the complex machinery of the press and because materials stretch and shift during printing.

Travel incentive

Trip offered to salespeople or dealers, often tied into sales meetings at resort areas.


High-quality worsted fabric with a 63-degree, double twill on the face of the cloth. Belongs to the same family as gabardine, whipcord, covert and cavalry twill. Various weights are used for men's and women's clothing.

Trim size

Finished size of a printed piece after waste is trimmed away.

Trojan Horse

A type of computer virus which comes disguised as a program. It usually happens like this: people download a program from the Internet, for example, because they think want it and think it is of some use, but once they start it up, it contains a virus and will erase your hard drive or wreak havoc on your system. A popular Trojan Horse type virus came in the form of a file called AOL4FREE.COM and the "I Love You" virus is another example. The name comes from the Greek legend of a horse that looks benevolent at first, but really holds trouble.


Rough durable woolen cloth with irregular slubs or knots on the surface, made with a twill or herringbone weave. Multicolored yarns are produced by adding colored nubs prior to spinning. Early tweeds were characterized by a very hairy face and scratchy hand. Today, many tweeds are flattened and shaven to soften them. Made in various weights and patterns and used for suits, sportswear and coats.


One of the three basic weaves (the others are plain and satin). It is characterized by a diagonal rib (twill) generally running upward from left to right (right hand twill). Left hand twill (traditional denim weave) has the diagonal rib running upward from right to left. Twill weaves are used to produce a strong, durable firm fabric.

Twill tape

Narrow herringbone twill weave tape used as reinforcement at the stress areas - neck, shoulders, pockets - of a garment. It is also used as a design element, often inside plackets.


Broken twill is a variation on traditional twill resulting in a very soft and flexible fabric.

Twisted yarn

The use of two or more yarns of different colors twisted together to form a single multicolor yarn.

Type transfer

Sheet of type created through a photographic and chemical process which can be transferred onto almost any surface by burnishing the back of the sheet.


General term used to describe the styles of lettering available in typesetting.


To create type of a quality usable for reproduction, whether electronically or mechanically.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Number of products less than what was originally ordered.

Unstructured slouch

Caps with no buckram are unstructured. Many of the latest caps have the "floppy" look. Can be scrunched up and stuffed in a back pocket.

Urethane coatings

Water and stain repellents are applied to the nylon fabric surface to add to the appearance of luggage.


Uniform Resource Locater points users to specific information on the Internet.

Use-the-user plan

Premium given to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or associate.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection, appearance or to prevent fingerprinting.

Vector graphics

Vector graphics use computer algorithms to describe shapes, lines, animation, etc. The technology of vector graphics is growing in popularity because the images are scalable and smaller in file size, a plus for online viewing and downloading. Vector graphics were developed in response to the limitations of raster-based graphics (popularly known as GIF and JPEG) because raster graphics use pixel-by-pixel definitions.

Vegetable (Color Families)

Rich, saturated colors that are used primarily in fall and winter deliveries. They include the colors eggplant, pumpkin and gold that are inspired by the hues of vegetables and fall foliage.


Medium weight, cotton type, dense, cut pile fabric that resembles velvet.


Photoprint with halftone dot pattern in place of continuous tone, ready for line reproduction. (See PMI)


Illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.


Stain resistant plastic material used for coverings and trims in luggage. Available in a wide range of colors.

Virgin wool

Wool shorn from live sheep that has not been used in any form prior to its being processed into any sort of textile product.


A program which replicates itself on computer systems by incorporating itself into other programs that are shared on a system. Most often thought of as "malicious" viruses are best known for "spreading overnight from one computer to millions of others around the world" and infecting machines causing them to crash. It is important that you take precautions against viruses, for example: get a virus scan program such as the one below, and don't open any e-mail attachments from people you don't know

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Lengthwise grain in woven fabric.

Wash drawings

Line drawings in which the middle tones have been retained.

Wasted circulation

Media circulation that reaches non-advertiser prospects.

Water repellency

Ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.


Ability to keep water from penetrating, but permits water vapor to pass through. There are more than 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproof and water vapor permeability.

WAV or .wav

A WAV file is a digitized sound file.

Weather resistant

Loose term referring primarily to a fabric's windresistant and water-repellent properties Waterresistant fabrics are those that resist the penetration of water. The greater the force of impact as the water hits the fabric surface, the greater the likelihood that it will penetrate the fabric.

Web server

Program that runs on a Web site and replies to users requesting information from that site.

Web site or Website

Location on the World Wide Web that contains information in text and image form.

Web-fed press

Press that prints from a continuous roll of paper.


Crosswise grain in a woven fabric. Weft is also known as "fill."


Visual effect of the thickness or thinness of text, rules or logos.


  1. Strip between a shoe sole and upper through which they are stitched or stapled together.
  2. A double edge, strip, insert, or seam for ornament or reinforcement.

Welt collar/cuff

A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeved garments.


Compact worsted twill fabric with prominent diagonal cords that run from the lower left to the upper right. Long-wearing utility cloth is used for suits, sportswear, and uniforms. It resembles, but is much coarser than, tricotine and gabardine.

White space

Space on a page not occupied by type, pictures or other elements.


Simple, boxy check or plaid pattern using a minimum of colors and thin lines to form large squares or rectangles with clear centers, like windowpanes.


Windows Metafile


Natural deep luster. Long wearing. Sheds water naturally. Springs back if creased or crushed.

Wool satin

Luxurious worsted fabric with a lustrous face, made with tightly twisted yarns and a satin weave.


Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other.


Word Perfect

Wrinkle free

Basic process of imparting the wrinkle free finish into the fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension. Pre-cured wrinkle free means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been produced. Post-cure wrinkle free means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured. Because the postcure wrinkle free process is set into the final pressed garment, it is more popular.

Wrinkle resistant

Controls the wrinkling of fabric.


World Wide Web, a global interactive system of text and images that runs over the Internet.


An acronym for What You See Is What You Get, which means that the composite page viewed on the screen of a workstation essentially represents what the printer will output.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Formation of pictures or copies of graphic materials by the action of light on an electrically charged surface in which the image is usually developed with powders.

Return to Top

(Click on a term to view the definition)


Grouping of fibers or filament which is twisted together to make a continuous strand.


Contoured portion of a garment, usually at the shoulder or hip.

Return to Top

Helpful Unhelpful